Crocodile Exclusion Enclosures (CEEs)

Crocodile Exclusion Enclosures (CEEs) are enclosures built along the banks of waterbodies to reduce the frequency of crocodile attacks on residents. These enclosures are predominantly used in freshwater habitat in areas where people rely on waterbodies for bathing, collecting water, washing clothes and utensils, etc. These enclosures can be VERY effective at reducing attacks, but they MUST be maintained and, obviously, they must actually be used! Metal and wire enclosures with gates that can be secured when not in use are the most effective, but if they are not maintained they can rust and develop holes that could allow crocodiles entry. This has already resulted in at least one attack along the Nilwala River in Sri Lanka, where a man was injured by a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) which had entered a poorly maintained CEE. These enclosures are far less useful for fishermen and are virtually useless for preventing attacks on people spearfishing, but they could provide safety for fishermen that are placing crab pots or fishing traps/nets, which are frequently targeted by crocodiles. This is an area of CEE mitigation that has not yet been explored. The following are photos of some different CEEs in Sri Lanka.

A flooded CEE along the Nilwala River in Sri Lanka. As you can see, this CEE is not secure, as a crocodile could easily enter from the left side.
This is an example of a poorly secured bamboo CEE. In addition to likely having gaps between the bamboo that could allow crocodiles to gain entry, crocodiles could also easily enter the CEE from land, since no gate or other barrier is present. Thanks to the late, great Ralf Sommerlad for the photo.
Another insecure CEE, this one made of tree branches. As with the previous photo, crocodiles could easily gain entry via multiple points. Thanks to the late, great Ralf Sommerlad for the photo.
A much more secure CEE, though it will require maintenance. Thanks to the late, great Ralf Sommerlad for the photo.